The main objective of a mosquito net coverage survey is to assess the level of ownership and utilisation of mosquito nets in the following categories:
- All household members (including children under 5, pregnant women and other household members);
- Children under 5 years of age; and
- Pregnant women.
Objectives should be worded as follows in the survey protocol and report:
- To determine the ownership of mosquito nets (all types and LLINs) in households.
- To determine the utilisation of mosquito nets (all types and LLINs) by the total population, children 0-59 months and pregnant women.
- To determine the household coverage of indoor residual spraying in the last 6 months/12 months (SENS recommendation: include this indicator only if IRS implemented in the last 6 months/12 months).
Specific Objectives- 1:
- To measure the proportion of households which own at least one mosquito net.
- To measure the proportion of households which own at least one long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN).
- To measure the average number of LLIN per household.
- To measure the average number of persons per LLIN.
Specific Objectives- 2:
- To measure the proportion of the total population who slept under a mosquito net (all types) last night.
- To measure the proportion of the total population who slept under an LLIN last night.
- To measure the proportion of children 0-59 months who slept under a mosquito net (all types) last night.
- To measure the proportion of children 0-59 months who slept under an LLIN last night.
- To measure the proportion of pregnant women who slept under a mosquito net (all types) last night.
- To measure the proportion of pregnant women who slept under an LLIN last night.
Specific Objective- 3:
- To determine the household coverage of indoor residual spraying in the last 6 months/12 months (if applicable).
- Data on the ownership and utilisation of mosquito nets, more importantly long-lasting insecticidal net (LLINs), are essential to collect in refugee settings where malaria is endemic and LLINs are used as one of the malaria control strategies.
- SENS surveys assessing mosquito net coverage should preferably be carried out in the high malaria transmission season when LLIN usage is often higher and LLIN utilisation more important.
- SENS surveys assessing mosquito net coverage should be conducted at the household level to obtain the level of LLIN coverage (ownership and utilisation).
- This module is intended to provide nutrition survey managers and survey teams with an overview of how a rapid LLIN mosquito net coverage survey should be conducted, how data should be collected and analysed, and how results should be presented and used. It is assumed that the malaria LLIN coverage module will be conducted in coordination with a standard nutrition survey, and possibly with other modules related to nutrition, anaemia, food security, and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH).
- This module is not intended to replace the role of a complete stand-alone malaria LLIN mosquito net coverage survey implemented after a LLIN distribution campaign, or a malaria indicator survey.
- This module is intended to inform the SENS survey teams about the common challenges faced while conducting a rapid LLIN mosquito net coverage survey and includes standardised guidance and survey tools on the following:
- Profiling the household;
- Standard questionnaire to use;
- Assessing mosquito nets;
- Standard procedures to follow for training, data collection, data handling and quality assurance;
- Standard tables and figures to include in the final SENS report.
- Past mosquito net distributions mainly targeted children under-5 years and pregnant women because, in malaria endemic countries, they are the most at risk. However, new net distributions are now targeting people of all ages including all women (whether pregnant or not) due to a greater overall beneficial effect. It is believed that the more mosquito nets there are, the more likely people will use them and the greater the impact on vector control will be.
- The frequency of the spraying cycle will depend on the malaria transmission patterns of the area and the residual effect of the insecticide formulation chosen. Spray rounds should ideally be completed in less than 2 months and just before the transmission season. In endemic areas with perennial transmission, two rounds of spraying in 6-month cycles may be recommended to ensure that there is adequate year-round coverage with residual insecticides. If the transmission pattern exhibits bimodal peaks, spraying rounds should target the peaks. In areas with one seasonal transmission, one spray round, in yearly cycles before the period of transmission, should be enough to have an impact on malaria transmission.